Plenary Session –I
Day 2: Saturday, March 21
9.00 hrs-10.30 hrs
Venue: Central Hall, May Fair Convention
Session I: Historical Linkages and Cultural Networks in IORA
Chair: Dr. Mahesh Sharma, Hon’ble Minister of State for Culture and Tourism (Independent Charge), Government of India
- Prof. Kishore Basa, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India
- Sailing from the Mediterranean to India, Alexander Augustus times: Prof. J.F. Salles, Archaeologist, InstituteFrancais du Proche-Orient, Amman, France
- Jewish Merchants in the Indian Ocean during the 1000-130 CE period: Prof. Ranabir Chakroborty, Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India
- 1000th Anniversary of RajendraChola-I’s Coronation and its Significance: Prof. P. Shanmugam, University of Madras, Chennai, India
Short bio data, Jean-François Salles
PhD in archaeology, University Paris1 in 1963. Tombs in Phoenicia-Canaan in the 3rd millennium BCE.
Researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) from 1967 to 2010, retirement.
Member of archaeological excavations in Israël (1961-162), in Cyprus (Kition, 1965-1985, in Syria (1971-1973), in Bahrain (1980-1986).
Director of the French archaeological mission to Kuwait/ Failaka (1983-1991),
Director of the French archaeological mission to Bangladesh/Mahasthan (1993-2012).
Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1991-1992).
In charge of different Research Seminars (DEA, PhD) in University Lumière Lyon2, 1985-1995.
Director of the Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen (University Lumière Lyon2-CNRS), 1995-2000
Director of the Amman French Institute for the Near East (IFPO, Jordan), 2003-2009.
Director of the series Indicopleustai, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, Belgium.
Select bibliography (only books) and mostly in French
La Nécropole K de Byblos, Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Mémoire n° 2, ADPF, Paris, 1980.
Kition-Bamboula II. Les égouts de la ville classique, Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Mémoire n° 27, ADPF, Paris, 1983.
La nécropole de Janussan (Bahrain), sous la direction de P. LOMBARD et J.-F. SALLES, Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient n° 6, Lyon, 1984, 183 pages + XXXI pl. (bilingue français-anglais).
Arabie orientale, Mésopotamie et Iran méridional de l'Age du Fer au début de la période islamique, sous la direction de R. BOUCHARLAT et J. -F. SALLES, Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Mémoire n° 37, ADPF, Paris, 1984.
Failaka. Fouilles Françaises 1983, sous la direction de J.-F. SALLES, Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient n° 9, Lyon, 1984 (bilingue anglais-français).
Failaka. Fouilles Françaises 1984-1985, sous la direction d'Y. CALVET et de J.-F. SALLES, Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient n° 12, Lyon, 1986 (bilingue français-anglais).
L'Arabie et ses mers bordières. I. Itinéraires et voisinages, Séminaire 1985-1986, sous la direction de J. F. SALLES, Travaux de la Maison, 1988.
Kition-Bamboula IV. Les niveaux hellénistiques, sous la dir. de J.-F. SALLES, avec Y. Calvet, O. Callot, M.-J. Chavane, P.-L. Gatier, Th. Oziol, Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris, 1993.
Arabia Antiqua. Hellenistic Centres around Arabia, edited by A. INVERNIZZI and J.-F. SALLES, Torino, 1993.
Athens, Aden, Arikamedu. Essays on the on the interrelations between India, Arabia and the Eastern Mediterannean, ed. by Marie-Françoise BOUSSAC & J.-F. SALLES, Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 1995 (English version of Topoi 3/2 , p. 389-623).
Tradition and Archaeology. Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean (Acts of the Colloquium Ancient Seafaring in the Indian Ocean. Techno-archaeological Perspectives, New Delhi, 1994), ed. by H.P. RAY & J.-F. SALLES, Manohar Publishers, New Delhi, 1996. (English)
France -Bangladesh Joint Venture Excavations at Mahasthangarh. First Interim Report, 1993-1999, edited by Md. Shafiqul ALAM & Jean-François SALLES, Department of Archaeology, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh - Mission française de coopération archéologique au Bangladesh, Maison de l'Orient Méditerranéen-Jean Pouilloux, Lyon, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris, Dhaka, 2001, 495 pp. (English)
A Gateway from the Eastern Mediterranean to India: The Red Sea in Antiquity, edited by Marie-Françoise BOUSSAC and Jean-Francois SALLES, Manohar Publishers, Delhi, 2005, 270 pp.
J.-F. SALLES (sous la dir. de), Pundranagara. Cité antique du Bengale, Indicopleustai (Archaeologies of the Indian Ocean), Brepols, 2007, 436 pp. QANI’. Le port antique du ºadramawt entre la Méditerranée, l’Afrique et l’Inde. Fouilles russes 1972, 1985-1989, 1991, 1993-1994, sous la dir de Jean-François SALLES et Alexander Vsevolodivitch SEDOV, Indicopleustoi, Brepols Ed. 2010.
J.-F. SALLES, sous la dir., Mahasthan II. Études archéologiques, Indicopleustai 10, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, 2014. (English version in press in Dhaka).
Short bio data, Professor Kishor K. Basa
Professor Kishor K. Basa (born 1958) did his Ph. D. from University of London relating to early trade between India and Southeast Asia. He was a Commonwealth Post-Doctoral Academic Staff Fellow at the University of Cambridge and a recipient of the Indo-French Cultural Exchange Fellowship. He was Director, Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal, Indian Museum, Kolkata and the Anthropological Survey of India. A former President, Archaeology Section of Indian History Congress as well as Anthropological and Behavioural Sciences Section of Indian Science Congress, Prof. Basa was also the Head of the Department of Anthropology, Utkal University where he has been teaching archaeology and museum studies since 1980. He has excavated the sites of Malikhoja, Harirajpur and Gouranga Patana in Odisha. He is founder editor of the journal Humankind and General Editor of a series on Intangible Cultural Heritage of India. At present he is the Member Secretary, Indian National Confederation and Academy of Anthropologists.
BIODATA, P.Shanmugam, M.A., Ph.D.
1.Name: P.Shanmugam, M.A., Ph.D.
2.Age and Date of Birth: 70 years, 1-6-1944.
3.Designation: Professor (Retired).
4.Date of Retirement: 31-05-2004
5.Department, Institution: Ancient History and Archaeology, Univer¬sity of Madras, Chennai-600 005.
M.A. 1967, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Madras.
Ph.D. 1977, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Madras.
Diploma in Sanskrit 1970, Department of Sanskrit, University of Madras.
Director: Institute of Traditional Cultures of Southeast Asia, University of Madras, 2004-2009
Professor: Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, Univer¬sity of Madras (from 1-1-90 to 31-5-2004).
Reader: Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Madras (from 1-1-84 to 31-12-89).
Lecturer: Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, Univer¬sity of Madras (from 2-4-1975 to 31-12-1983)
Assisstant Professor: Government Arts College for Men, Nandanam, Madras-18, (from 20-12-72 to 1-4-75)
8. Total Teaching experience :
U.G.: 3 years.
: P.G.: 30 years.
9. List of Publications: -- Books:
1.Studies in Socio-Cultural Change in Rural Villages in Thiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India, Vol.I, Tokyo, 1980(Co-author).
2.Srinithi: Perspective in Indian Archaeology, Art and Culture, New Era Publications, Madras, 1983(Co-Editor).
3.Revenue System of the Cholas, New Era Publications, Madras, 1987, pp.296.
4.Vijayanagara Rule in Tamil Country as revealed through a Statistical Study on Revenue terms in Inscriptions, Tokyo, 1988(Co-Author).
5.Cankakaalak Kacu Iyal, (Coinage of the Sangam period) International Institute of Tamil Studies, CPT.Campus,Chennai.2003
6.Recent Advances in Vijayanagara Studies, New Era Publications, Chennai.2006
7.Terracotta Art in the Tamil Country, Government Museum, Chennai.2007.
8.Thamilaga Man Uruvangkal (Clay art of Tamil Country, in Tamil, Sekar Pathippakama, Chennai.) 2009
9.South Indian Economy: Reflections on Tamil Country, Sekar Pathippakama, Chennai.2010
10. List of other Publications: Contributed Chapters to the following volumes
1. “History of Tamil Nadu”, prepared by the Government of Tamil Nadu: 1. Pallavar Kalam, 2. Cholap Peruvendar Kalam --1990-2000
2. Chapter to the Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture (PHISP), New Delhi, General Editor; Prof. R. Balasubramainan. Vol, VI,The Life-World of the Tamils: Past and Present -I, “Trade Commerce, and Crafts of the Early Medieval Tamils (End of the 12th century A.D.,” pp.694-730. 2007
3.Contributed two Chapters to the Concise History of South India, ed. By Noboru Karashima, Oxford. pp. 8-15; 98-106 2014
11. Papers and other materials: more than 200
12.Awards and titles
1.C.H.Bidhulp Medal in Numismatics for the year 2003, the Numismatic Society of India, Varanas
2.Dr.P.L.Gupta Memorial Medal, the South Indian Numismatic Society.
13.Positions in Professional Societies
1.Section President, Indian History Congress for the 58th Session (1998, Bangalore): Section V: Historical Archaeology, Epigraphy, Numismatics and Archives
2.General President, Tamil Nadu History Congress, 7th Session, Mother Theresa Women’s University, Kodaikkanal, September, 22-24, 2000
3.General President, Place Names Society of India, 265th Annual Congress, Mythic Society, Bangalore
4.President, Tamil Nadu Archaeological Society, Thanjavur. (from 2006 onwards
5.General President, South Indian Numismatic Society, 16th Annual Conference, Dravidian University, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh
14.Endowment Lectures Delivered
1.Prof. N.Sanjeevi Endowment Lecture, Tamil University, Thanjavur.1994.
2.The Ku.Si. Haridasa Bhatt Endowment Lecture, the Place Names Society of India, 13th Session, Tirussur, Kerala,1998.
3.T.V. Ramasubbaiar Endowment Lecture, The International Institute of Tamil Studies, Chennai, 2003.
Prof. T. Balakrishanan Nayar Endowment Lecture, Government Museum, Chennai, 2008.
4.Special Address delivered at the Conference of Tamil Sudies, Coimbatore, 2010.
15.Research Projects Completed
1.Port Cities in Tamil Nadu (UGC, Major Research Project) (2004)
2.Development of Coins and Seals, Project awarded by the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore. (2008)
3.A Thematic Concordance of Inscriptional terms, Mozhi Trust, Project awarded by Central Institute of Classical Tamil, Chennai. (2014)
Indonesia, Malaysia, Miyanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Kampuchia and Singapore to Study Indian Cultural ties and the diffusion of Indian sculptural art
Tokyo University, Taisho University, Tokyo, Japan: to study the Indian cultural contacts with Southeast Asia and trade guilds of South India.
Sri Lanka, for field-visit and study the Trade Guild inscriptions.
Short bio data, RANABIR CHAKRAVARTI
Ranabir Chakravarti, Professor of Ancient History, Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India) specializes in the social and economic history with a particular interest in the Indian Ocean maritime history. A regular contributor to refereed journals, Chakravarti has authored/edited several books, including A Sourcebook of Indian Civilization (Hyderabad, Orient Longman, 2000), Trade in Early India (New Delhi, OUP, 2005), Trade and Traders in Early Indian Society (New Delhi, Manohar, 2007), Indo-Judaic Studies in the Twenty-first Century: A View from the Margin (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007) and Exploring Early India (New Delhi: MacMillan, 2013).He has also annotated the text, How to Defeat the Saracens (Washington DC: Dumberton Oaks, 2012). Chakravarti was elected the Sectional President (Ancient India) of the Indian History Congress (72nd session, Patiala) in 2011. He also presided over the Ancient India section of Punjab History Congress (2011, Punjabi University, Patiala). Ranabir Chakravarti delivered the Anniversary Commemorative Lecture (India and the Indian Ocean: Issues in Trade and Politics up to c. 1500 CE) under the auspices of the Maritime History Society, Mumbai in May 2014.
Civilisational Linkages in the Indian Ocean: An Archaeological Study on India’s Trade with Rome and Southeast Asia
Kishor K. Basa,
Department of Anthropology,
Utkal University, Bhubaneswar India 751004
(M) 91 8895615636
Civilisational linkages in the Indian Ocean could be traced back to trade between the Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilisations during the third millennium BC. However, the present paper deals with a later period emphasising the Indo-Roman and Indo-Southeast Asian trade during late centuries BC and early centuries AD. Trade between India and Rome was very active during the 2nd – 1st centuries BC as known from the recovery of Republican coins in South India. The political stability ushered in by Augustus Caesar and the discovery of the use of the south-west monsoon for trading voyage – said to have been made by Hippalus sometime in the 1st century BC – accelerated the process. Trade routes, items of export from India and evidence of Indo-Roman trade will be discussed. With regard to Southeast Asia, India’s interest in Southeast Asia will be delineated in terms of external trade as an extension of internal trade, Southeast Asia as a Land of Gold as well as India as a middleman between Rome and Southeast Asia. Archaeological evidence of such a trade - which include glass and semi-precious stone beads -, items and routes will also be discussed. The paper will end by pointing out the changing perspectives of Indian writings on early history and archaeology of Southeast Asia between the first half of the 20th century and the later part, from a historiographical perspective.
JEWISH MERCHANTS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN (C. 1000-1300 CE)
CENTRE FOR HISTORICAL STUDIES
JNU, NEW DELHI
The Indian Ocean, covering nearly 20% of the total maritime space of this planet, has been known for sustained seafaring activities at least from the third millennium BCE, if not earlier. Though the most worked out phase in the history of the Indian Ocean relates to three crucial centuries, 1500-1800, there has been a very long pre-modern past of seafaring that connected the South Asian subcontinent (located almost at the very centre of the Indian Ocean) with West Asia, North and East Africa on the one hand, and with Southeast Asia and China on the other. In other words, Vasco da Gama’s arrival at Calicut in 1498 did not mark the advent of the age of discoveries in the Indian Ocean. Regular traversing of this vast maritime space was largely shaped by two factors of unity in the Indian Ocean: a) the predicable alterations in the monsoon wind-system, regularly utilized by the sailing crafts and b) the ubiquitous presence of ‘sewn boats’ made of wooden planks. The Indian subcontinent, with its two long coasts jutting out into the embayed ocean, were ideally situated for the developments of ports (velakula in Sanskrit; velapuram/pattinam in Tamil) which were frequented by local coasters and larger vessels engaged in blue water voyages.
Among the diverse communities visiting the coastal tracts of the subcontinent were the Jews mostly coming from West Asia and north Africa. The Jewish presence is particularly noticeable in Malabar, the coastal tract of Kerala, resulting in the well-known Jewish diaspora in Kerala. The Jewish traditions trace back the Jewish presence in Malabar as early as the 1st century CE. The role of the Jewish Rahdani merchants in the subcontinent figures also in the late 9th century CE geographical text by IbnKhurdadbeh. However, the most important source of Jewish mercantile and sea-faring activities in the subcontinent during the pre-modern times is the ‘Documentary Geniza’. These documents datable from the 11th to the 13th century CE consist of numerous letters of Jewish merchants, who are designated as the ‘India traders’ (S.D. Goitein and Mordechai Friedman). These letters and other business documents, including legal papers, offer fascinating images of diverse types of Jewish merchants, commodities, pricing, profits and accounts, ports and marts and the Indian Ocean shipping network. The most important point is that these documents offer us the rare voices of merchants themselves, engaged in sustained seafaring. It is no surprise that the geniza papers are replete with ship-owning merchants (nakhudas). The significant point here is that it is largely through the Geniza papers that one comes across several Indian ship-owners. The other salient feature is the copious information about sea-borne commerce in daily necessity and staples, rather than luxuries. Two letters among Jewish India traders also bring to light a naval expedition by the ruler of Kish (Qays, an island polity in the Persian Gulf) against Aden, the premier port in the Red Sea (1135-36 CE). However, the most striking feature of the Jewish trade letters is the remarkable co-existence among Indian, Arab Muslim and Jewish merchants; there is hardly any impression of religious contestations among diverse merchant groups professing a variety of religious beliefs and faiths.